Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

  • chronic lymphocytic leukemia
    other namesb-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (b-cll)[1]
    chronic lymphocytic leukemia.jpg
    peripheral blood smear showing cll cells
    specialtyhematology and oncology
    symptomsearly: none[2]
    later: non-painful lymph nodes swelling, feeling tired, fever, weight loss[2]
    usual onsetolder than 50[3]
    risk factorsfamily history, agent orange, certain insecticides[2][4]
    diagnostic methodblood tests[5]
    differential diagnosismononucleosis, hairy cell leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, persistent polyclonal b-cell lymphocytosis[5]
    treatmentwatchful waiting, chemotherapy, immunotherapy[4][5]
    prognosisfive-year survival ~83% (us)[3]
    frequency904,000 (2015)[6]
    deaths60,700 (2015)[7]

    chronic lymphocytic leukemia (cll) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).[2][8] early on there are typically no symptoms.[2] later non-painful lymph node swelling, feeling tired, fever, night sweats, or weight loss for no clear reason may occur.[2][9] enlargement of the spleen and low red blood cells (anemia) may also occur.[2][4] it typically worsens gradually over years.[2]

    risk factors include having a family history of the disease.[2] exposure to agent orange and certain insecticides might also be a risk.[4] cll results in the buildup of b cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood.[4] these cells do not function well and crowd out healthy blood cells.[2] cll is divided into two main types: those with a mutated ighv gene and those without.[4] diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells.[5]

    management of early disease is generally with watchful waiting.[5] infections should more readily be treated with antibiotics.[4] in those with significant symptoms, chemotherapy or immunotherapy may be used.[4] as of 2019 ibrutinib is often the initial medication recommended.[10] the medications fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab were previously the initial treatment in those who are otherwise healthy.[11]

    cll affected about 904,000 people globally in 2015 and resulted in 60,700 deaths.[6][7] the disease most commonly occurs in people over the age of 50.[3] males are affected more often than females.[3] it is much less common in people from asia.[4] five-year survival following diagnosis is approximately 83% in the united states.[3] it represents less than 1% of deaths from cancer.[7]

  • signs and symptoms
  • cause
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  • prognosis
  • epidemiology
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  • see also
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Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
Other namesB-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL)[1]
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia.jpg
Peripheral blood smear showing CLL cells
SpecialtyHematology and oncology
SymptomsEarly: None[2]
Later: Non-painful lymph nodes swelling, feeling tired, fever, weight loss[2]
Usual onsetOlder than 50[3]
Risk factorsFamily history, Agent Orange, certain insecticides[2][4]
Diagnostic methodBlood tests[5]
Differential diagnosisMononucleosis, hairy cell leukemia, acute lymphocytic leukemia, persistent polyclonal B-cell lymphocytosis[5]
TreatmentWatchful waiting, chemotherapy, immunotherapy[4][5]
PrognosisFive-year survival ~83% (US)[3]
Frequency904,000 (2015)[6]
Deaths60,700 (2015)[7]

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a type of cancer in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).[2][8] Early on there are typically no symptoms.[2] Later non-painful lymph node swelling, feeling tired, fever, night sweats, or weight loss for no clear reason may occur.[2][9] Enlargement of the spleen and low red blood cells (anemia) may also occur.[2][4] It typically worsens gradually over years.[2]

Risk factors include having a family history of the disease.[2] Exposure to Agent Orange and certain insecticides might also be a risk.[4] CLL results in the buildup of B cell lymphocytes in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and blood.[4] These cells do not function well and crowd out healthy blood cells.[2] CLL is divided into two main types: those with a mutated IGHV gene and those without.[4] Diagnosis is typically based on blood tests finding high numbers of mature lymphocytes and smudge cells.[5]

Management of early disease is generally with watchful waiting.[5] Infections should more readily be treated with antibiotics.[4] In those with significant symptoms, chemotherapy or immunotherapy may be used.[4] As of 2019 ibrutinib is often the initial medication recommended.[10] The medications fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and rituximab were previously the initial treatment in those who are otherwise healthy.[11]

CLL affected about 904,000 people globally in 2015 and resulted in 60,700 deaths.[6][7] The disease most commonly occurs in people over the age of 50.[3] Males are affected more often than females.[3] It is much less common in people from Asia.[4] Five-year survival following diagnosis is approximately 83% in the United States.[3] It represents less than 1% of deaths from cancer.[7]