|Other names||Morbilli, rubeola, red measles, English measles|
|A child showing a day-four measles rash|
|Symptoms||Fever, cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, rash|
|Usual onset||10–12 days after exposure|
|Frequency||20 million per year|
Measles is a highly contagious
Measles is an
Measles affects about 20 million people a year, primarily in the developing areas of Africa and Asia. While often regarded as a childhood illness, it can affect people of any age. It is one of the leading vaccine-preventable disease causes of death. In 1980, 2.6 million people died of it, and in 1990, 545,000 died; by 2014, global vaccination programs had reduced the number of deaths from measles to 73,000. Despite these trends, rates of disease and deaths increased from 2017 to 2019 due to a decrease in immunization. The risk of death among those infected is about 0.2%, but may be up to 10% in people with
Symptoms typically begin 10–14 days after exposure. The classic symptoms include a four-day fever (the 4 D's) and the three C's—
The characteristic measles
Complications of measles are relatively common, ranging from mild ones such as
In addition, measles can suppress the immune system for weeks to months, and this can contribute to bacterial superinfections such as otitis media and bacterial pneumonia. Two months after recovered there is a 11–73% of their antibodies against other bacteria and viruses.
The death rate in the 1920s was around 30% for measles pneumonia. People who are at high risk for complications are infants and children aged less than 5 years; adults aged over 20 years; pregnant women; people with compromised immune systems, such as from
Even in previously healthy children, measles can cause serious illness requiring hospitalization. One out of every 1,000 measles cases progresses to acute encephalitis, which often results in permanent brain damage. One or two out of every 1,000 children who become infected with measles will die from respiratory and neurological complications.