Meldonium

Meldonium
Meldonium.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesMildronate, Mildronāts
Other namesTHP, MET-8 Mildronāts or Quaterine
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
  • US: Unscheduled
Identifiers
86426-17-7 ☑Y
123868
110405 ☑Y
73H7UDN6EC
D10504
CHEBI:131843 ☑Y
DTXSID10997497 Edit this at Wikidata
100.110.108 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC6H14N2O2
Molar mass146.190 g·mol−1
3D model (Interactive image
Solubility in water>40 mg/mL mg/mL (20 °C)

Meldonium (INN; trade name Mildronate, among others) is a limited-market pharmaceutical, developed in 1970 by Ivars Kalviņš at the USSR Latvia Institute of Organic Synthesis, and now manufactured by the Latvian pharmaceutical company Grindeks and several generic manufacturers. It is primarily distributed in Eastern European countries as an anti-ischemia medication.[1]

Since 1 January 2016, it has been on the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) list of substances banned from use by athletes.[2] However, there are debates over its use as an athletic performance enhancer. Some athletes are known to have been using it before it was banned.[3] It is currently unscheduled in the US.

Medical use

Meldonium may be used to treat coronary artery disease.[4][5] These heart problems may sometimes lead to ischemia, a condition where too little blood flows to the organs in the body, especially the heart. Because this drug is thought to expand the arteries, it helps to increase the blood flow as well as increase the flow of oxygen throughout the body.[6] Meldonium has also been found to induce anticonvulsant and antihypnotic effects involving alpha 2-adrenergic receptors as well as nitric oxide-dependent mechanisms. This, in summary, shows that meldonium given in acute doses could be beneficial for the treatment of seizures and alcohol intoxication.[7] It is also used in cases of cerebral ischemia, ocular ischemic syndrome and other ocular disease caused by disturbed arterial circulation and may also have some effect on decreasing the severity of withdrawal symptoms caused by the cessation of chronic alcohol use.