Organ system

The nervous system in its place in the body

An organ system is a group of organs that work together as a biological system to perform one or more functions. Each organ does a particular job in the body, and is made up of distinct tissues.

  • organs systems and their functions

Organs systems and their functions

There are eleven distinct organ systems in human beings, which form the basis of anatomy. Other animals have similar organ systems, although simpler animals may have fewer organs in an organ system or even fewer organ systems. Plants too have organs, such as flowers and leaves, and these are grouped into organ systems as well.

Organ System Description Component Organs
Respiratory system breathing: exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide nose, mouth, sinus, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs and diaphragm.
Digestive system digestion: breakdown and absorption of nutrients, excretion of solid wastes teeth, tongue, salivary glands, esophagus, stomach, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus
Cardiovascular system circulate blood in order to transport nutrients, waste, hormones, O2, CO2, and aid in maintaining pH and temperature blood, heart, arteries, veins, capillaries
Urinary system maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, purify blood and excrete liquid waste (urine) kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra
Integumentary system exterior protection of body and thermal regulation skin, hair, exocrine glands, fat, and nails
Skeletal system structural support and protection, production of blood cells bones, cartilage, ligaments and tendons.
Muscular system movement of body, production of heat skeletal muscles, smooth muscles and cardiac muscle
Endocrine system communication within the body using hormones made by endocrine glands hypothalamus, pituitary, pineal gland, thyroid, parathyroid and adrenal glands, ovaries, testes
Lymphatic system return fluids (lymph) to blood stream, aid immune responses, form white blood cells lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils, spleen, thymus
Nervous system sensing and processing information, controlling body activities brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory organs (e.g. vision, smell, taste, hearing)
Reproductive system sex organs involved in reproduction ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, penis, testes, vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate

There are other systems in the body that are not organ systems. For example, the Immune system protects the organism from infection, but it is not an organ system as it is not composed of organs.

Some organs are in more than one system. For example, the nose is in both the respiratory system and also is a sensory organ in the nervous system. The testes and ovary are both part of the reproductive systems and endocrine systems.