Ruhollah Khomeini

  • grand ayatollah

    sayyid ruhollah khomeini
    سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی
    portrait of ruhollah khomeini by mohammad sayyad.jpg
    khomeini in 1981
    1st supreme leader of iran
    in office
    11 february 1979 – 3 june 1989
    presidentabolhassan banisadr
    mohammad-ali rajai
    ali khamenei
    prime ministermehdi bazargan
    mohammad-ali rajai
    mohammad-javad bahonar
    mohammad-reza mahdavi kani
    mir-hossein mousavi
    preceded bymohammad reza pahlavi
    as shah of iran
    succeeded byali khamenei
    personal details
    born(1902-09-24)24 september 1902[1][2][3][4]
    khomeyn, qajar iran
    died3 june 1989(1989-06-03) (aged 86)
    tehran, iran
    resting placemausoleum of ruhollah khomeini
    nationalityiranian
    spouse(s)
    khadijeh saqafi (m. 1929)
    childrenmostafa
    zahra
    sadiqeh
    farideh
    ahmad
    signaturewww.imam-khomeini.ir
    titlegrand ayatollah
    personal
    religionislam
    denominationtwelver shīʿā[5][6][7]
    jurisprudenceja'fari
    creedusuli
    notable idea(s)new advance of guardianship
    notable work(s)forty hadith, kashf al-asrar, tahrir al-wasilah, islamic government
    alma materqom seminary
    teachersayatollah seyyed hossein borujerdi
    styles of
    ruhollah khomeini
    reference styleeminent marji' al-taqlid, ayatullah al-uzma imam khumayni[8]
    spoken styleimam khomeini[9]
    religious styleayatullah al-uzma ruhollah khomeini[9]

    sayyid ruhollah musavi khomeini (uk: i/ ay-nee, us: ˈ-/ khohm-; persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی[ɾuːholˈlɒːhe xomejˈniː] (about this soundlisten); 24 september 1902 – 3 june 1989), also known in the western world as ayatollah khomeini,[10] was an iranian revolutionary, politician, and cleric. he was the founder of the islamic republic of iran and the leader of the 1979 iranian revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last shah of iran, mohammad reza pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old persian monarchy. following the revolution, khomeini became the country's supreme leader, a position created in the constitution of the islamic republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. he was succeeded by ali khamenei on 4 june 1989.

    khomeini was born in 1902 in khomeyn, in what is now iran's markazi province. his father was murdered in 1903 when khomeini was five months old.[11] he began studying the quran and the persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother.

    khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in twelver shia islam, a mujtahid or faqih (an expert in sharia) and author of more than 40 books, but he is primarily known for his political activities. he spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last shah. in his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "guardianship of the islamic jurist (clerical authority)", to include theocratic political rule by islamic jurists. this principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution),[12][13] was appended to the new iranian constitution[14] after being put to a referendum.[15] according to the new york times, khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution.[16] whether khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the islamic republic to be democratic is disputed.[17] he was time magazine's man of the year in 1979 for his international influence,[18] and khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of shia islam in western popular culture".[19] in 1982, he survived one military coup attempt.[20] khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the iran hostage crisis,[21] his fatwa calling for the murder of british indian novelist salman rushdie,[18][22] and for referring to the united states as the "great satan" and soviet union as the "lesser satan."[23] khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the iran–iraq war).[24][25][26][27][28]

    he has also been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity",[29] a "champion of islamic revival" by shia scholars,[19] who attempted to establish good relations between sunnis and shias,[30] and a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy.[31][32] khomeini held the title of grand ayatollah and is officially known as imam khomeini inside iran[33] and by his supporters internationally.[9] he is generally referred to as ayatollah khomeini by others.[34] in iran, his gold-domed tomb in tehran's behesht-e zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents,[35] and he is legally considered "inviolable", with iranians regularly punished for insulting him.[36][37]

  • early years
  • early political activity
  • life in exile
  • supreme leader of the islamic republic of iran
  • life under khomeini
  • death and funeral
  • political thought and legacy
  • appearance and habits
  • mystique
  • family and descendants
  • bibliography
  • see also
  • notes
  • references
  • external links


Sayyid Ruhollah Khomeini
سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی
Portrait of Ruhollah Khomeini By Mohammad Sayyad.jpg
Khomeini in 1981
1st Supreme Leader of Iran
In office
11 February 1979 – 3 June 1989
PresidentAbolhassan Banisadr
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Ali Khamenei
Prime MinisterMehdi Bazargan
Mohammad-Ali Rajai
Mohammad-Javad Bahonar
Mohammad-Reza Mahdavi Kani
Mir-Hossein Mousavi
Preceded byMohammad Reza Pahlavi
as Shah of Iran
Succeeded byAli Khamenei
Personal details
Born(1902-09-24)24 September 1902[1][2][3][4]
Khomeyn, Qajar Iran
Died3 June 1989(1989-06-03) (aged 86)
Tehran, Iran
Resting placeMausoleum of Ruhollah Khomeini
NationalityIranian
Spouse(s)
Khadijeh Saqafi (m. 1929)
ChildrenMostafa
Zahra
Sadiqeh
Farideh
Ahmad
Signaturewww.imam-khomeini.ir
TitleGrand Ayatollah
Personal
ReligionIslam
DenominationTwelver Shīʿā[5][6][7]
JurisprudenceJa'fari
CreedUsuli
Notable idea(s)New advance of Guardianship
Notable work(s)Forty Hadith, Kashf al-Asrar, Tahrir al-Wasilah, Islamic Government
Alma materQom Seminary
TeachersAyatollah Seyyed Hossein Borujerdi
Styles of
Ruhollah Khomeini
Reference styleEminent marji' al-taqlid, Ayatullah al-Uzma Imam Khumayni[8]
Spoken styleImam Khomeini[9]
Religious styleAyatullah al-Uzma Ruhollah Khomeini[9]

Sayyid Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini (UK: i/ AY-nee, US: ˈ-/ khohm-; Persian: سید روح‌الله موسوی خمینی[ɾuːholˈlɒːhe xomejˈniː] (About this soundlisten); 24 September 1902 – 3 June 1989), also known in the Western world as Ayatollah Khomeini,[10] was an Iranian revolutionary, politician, and cleric. He was the founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution, which saw the overthrow of the last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, and the end of the 2,500 year old Persian monarchy. Following the revolution, Khomeini became the country's Supreme Leader, a position created in the constitution of the Islamic Republic as the highest-ranking political and religious authority of the nation, which he held until his death. He was succeeded by Ali Khamenei on 4 June 1989.

Khomeini was born in 1902 in Khomeyn, in what is now Iran's Markazi Province. His father was murdered in 1903 when Khomeini was five months old.[11] He began studying the Quran and the Persian language from a young age and was assisted in his religious studies by his relatives, including his mother's cousin and older brother.

Khomeini was a marja ("source of emulation") in Twelver Shia Islam, a Mujtahid or faqih (an expert in Sharia) and author of more than 40 books, but he is primarily known for his political activities. He spent more than 15 years in exile for his opposition to the last shah. In his writings and preachings he expanded the theory of welayat-el faqih, the "Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist (clerical authority)", to include theocratic political rule by Islamic jurists. This principle (though not known to the wider public before the revolution),[12][13] was appended to the new Iranian constitution[14] after being put to a referendum.[15] According to The New York Times, Khomeini called democracy the equivalent of prostitution.[16] Whether Khomeini's ideas are compatible with democracy and whether he intended the Islamic Republic to be democratic is disputed.[17] He was Time magazine's Man of the Year in 1979 for his international influence,[18] and Khomeini has been described as the "virtual face of Shia Islam in Western popular culture".[19] In 1982, he survived one military coup attempt.[20] Khomeini was known for his support of the hostage takers during the Iran hostage crisis,[21] his fatwa calling for the murder of British Indian novelist Salman Rushdie,[18][22] and for referring to the United States as the "Great Satan" and Soviet Union as the "Lesser Satan."[23] Khomeini has been criticized for these acts and for human rights violations of Iranians (including his ordering of execution of thousands of political prisoners, war criminals and prisoners of the Iran–Iraq War).[24][25][26][27][28]

He has also been lauded as a "charismatic leader of immense popularity",[29] a "champion of Islamic revival" by Shia scholars,[19] who attempted to establish good relations between Sunnis and Shias,[30] and a major innovator in political theory and religious-oriented populist political strategy.[31][32] Khomeini held the title of Grand Ayatollah and is officially known as Imam Khomeini inside Iran[33] and by his supporters internationally.[9] He is generally referred to as Ayatollah Khomeini by others.[34] In Iran, his gold-domed tomb in Tehran's Behesht-e Zahrāʾ cemetery has become a shrine for his adherents,[35] and he is legally considered "inviolable", with Iranians regularly punished for insulting him.[36][37]